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EQ-5D 5L | Population Norms

National normative data can be used to benchmark the outcomes of specific groups (e.g. patients) against the health of the general population of a country or region. EQ-5D-5L population norm data has been published for a number of countries (please see table below). Please contact us if you have plans to collect or publish EQ-5D-Y population norms data.

EQ-5D-5L Population Norm Studies

CountryReference
AustraliaHealth-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5L: South Australian population norms.
McCaffrey N, Kaambwa B, Currow DC, Ratcliffe J.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016 Sep 20;14(1):133. doi: 10.1186/s12955-016-0537-0.
Barbados & JamaicaEQ-5D self-reported health in Barbados and Jamaica with EQ-5D-5L population norms for the English-speaking Caribbean.
Bailey H, Janssen MF, La Foucade A, Boodraj G, Wharton M, Castillo P.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2021 Mar 19;19(1):97. doi: 10.1186/s12955-021-01734-8.
BelgiumBelgian population norms for the EQ-5D-5L,  2018.
Van Wilder L, Charafeddine R, Beutels P, Bruyndonckx R, Cleemput I, Demarest S, De Smedt D, Hens N, Scohy A, Speybroeck N, Van der Heyden J, Yokota RTC, Van Oyen H, Bilcke J, Devleesschauwer B.
Qual Life Res. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1007/s11136-021-02971-6. Online ahead of print.
BelizeHealth-Related Quality of Life Population Norms for Belize Using EQ-5D-5L. 
Bailey H, Janssen MF, La Foucade A, Castillo P, Boodraj G.
Value Health Reg Issues. 2021 Nov 18;29:45-52. doi: 10.1016/j.vhri.2021.09.005. Online ahead of print.
BulgariaEQ-5D-5L Bulgarian population norms. 
Encheva M, Djambazov S, Vekov T, Golicki D.
Eur J Health Econ. 2020 Nov;21(8):1169-1178. doi: 10.1007/s10198-020-01225-5. Epub 2020 Aug 19.
Canada (Alberta)Alberta population norms for EQ-5D-5L. 
The APERSU Team (2018).
Canada (Quebec)Quebec Health-Related Quality-of-Life Population Norms Using the EQ-5D-5L: Decomposition by Sociodemographic Data and Health Problems. 
Poder TG, Carrier N, Kouakou CRC.
Value Health. 2020 Feb;23(2):251-259. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2019.08.008. Epub 2019 Oct 3.
ChinaEQ-5D-5L norms for the urban Chinese population in China. 
Yang Z, Busschbach J, Liu G, Luo N.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018 Nov 8;16(1):210. doi: 10.1186/s12955-018-1036-2.
China (Hong Kong)Normative Profile of Health-Related Quality of Life for Hong Kong General Population Using Preference-Based Instrument EQ-5D-5L .
Wong EL, Cheung AW, Wong AY, Xu RH, Ramos-Goñi JM, Rivero-Arias O.
Value Health. 2019 Aug;22(8):916-924. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2019.02.014. Epub 2019 Jul 27.
ColombiaEQ-5D-5L Population Norms and Health Inequality in Colombia .
Bailey HH, Janssen MF, Varela RO, Moreno JA.
Value Health Reg Issues. 2021 Dec;26:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.vhri.2020.12.002. Epub 2021 Mar 25.
DenmarkDanish population health measured by the EQ-5D-5L .
Jensen MB, Jensen CE, Gudex C, Pedersen KM, Sørensen SS, Ehlers LH.
Scand J Public Health. 2021 Nov 30:14034948211058060. doi: 10.1177/14034948211058060. Online ahead of print.
GermanyHealth-related quality of life measured with the EQ-5D-5L: estimation of normative index values based on a representative German population sample and value set. 
Grochtdreis T, Dams J, König HH, Konnopka A.
Eur J Health Econ. 2019 Aug;20(6):933-944. doi: 10.1007/s10198-019-01054-1. Epub 2019 Apr 27.
GermanyHealth-Related Quality of Life of the General German Population in 2015: Results from the EQ-5D-5L.  
Huber, M. B., Felix, J., Vogelmann, M., & Leidl, R. (2017). Int J Environ Res Public Health, 14(4).
GermanyEQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys.  
Huber, M. B., Reitmeir, P., Vogelmann, M., & Leidl, R. (2016). Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(3).
GermanyThe quality of life questionnaire EQ-5D-5L: psychometric properties and normative values for the general German population. 
Hinz A, Kohlmann T, Stöbel-Richter Y, Zenger M, Brähler E.
Qual Life Res. 2014 Mar;23(2):443-7. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0498-2. Epub 2013 Aug 7.
Germany (Elderly) EQ-5D-5L reference values for the German general elderly population.
 Marten O, Greiner W.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2021 Mar 6;19(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12955-021-01719-7.
IndonesiaQuality of life of the Indonesian general population: Test-retest reliability and population norms of the EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF .
Purba FD, Hunfeld JAM, Iskandarsyah A, Fitriana TS, Sadarjoen SS, Passchier J, Busschbach JJV.
PLoS One. 2018 May 11;13(5):e0197098. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197098. eCollection 2018.
IranHealth-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5 L: population norms for the capital of Iran.
Emrani Z, Akbari Sari A, Zeraati H, Olyaeemanesh A, Daroudi R. Health Qual Life Outcomes.  2020 Apr 25;18(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s12955-020-01365-5
Hobbins A, Barry L, Kelleher D, O'Neill C.
IrelandThe health of the residents of Ireland: Population norms for Ireland based on the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system - a cross sectional study .
Hobbins A, Barry L, Kelleher D, O'Neill C.
HRB Open Res. 2018 Sep 4;1:22. doi: 10.12688/hrbopenres.12848.1. eCollection 2018.
JapanJapanese Population Norms of EQ-5D-5L and Health Utilities Index Mark 3: Disutility Catalog by Disease and Symptom in Community Settings .
Shiroiwa T, Noto S, Fukuda T.
Value Health. 2021 Aug;24(8):1193-1202. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2021.03.010. Epub 2021 Apr 22.
JapanJapanese population norms for preference-based measures: EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L, and SF-6D .
Shiroiwa T, Fukuda T, Ikeda S, Igarashi A, Noto S, Saito S, Shimozuma K.
Qual Life Res. 2016 Mar;25(3):707-19. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1108-2. Epub 2015 Aug 25.
New ZealandNew Zealand Population Norms for the EQ-5D-5L Constructed From the Personal Value Sets of Participants in a National Survey .
Sullivan T, Turner RM, Derrett S, Hansen P.
Value Health. 2021 Sep;24(9):1308-1318. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2021.04.1280. Epub 2021 Jun 26.
NorwayNorwegian population norms for the EQ-5D-5L: results from a general population survey .
Garratt AM, Hansen TM, Augestad LA, Rand K, Stavem K.
Qual Life Res. 2021 Jul 16:1-10. doi: 10.1007/s11136-021-02938-7. Online ahead of print.
PolandEQ-5D-5L Polish population norms .
Golicki D, Niewada M.
Arch Med Sci. 2017 Feb 1;13(1):191-200. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2015.52126. Epub 2015 Jun 9.
Poland (diabetes patients)EQ-5D-5L-based quality of life normative data for patients with self-reported diabetes in Poland. 
Jankowska A, Golicki D.
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 29;16(9):e0257998. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257998. eCollection 2021.
RussiaPopulation norms of health-related quality of life in Moscow, Russia: the EQ-5D-5L-based survey. 
Hołownia-Voloskova M, Tarbastaev A, Golicki D.
Qual Life Res. 2021 Mar;30(3):831-840. doi: 10.1007/s11136-020-02705-0. Epub 2020 Nov 25.
SloveniaEQ-5D-5L Slovenian population norms .
Prevolnik Rupel V, Ogorevc M.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020 Oct 7;18(1):333. doi: 10.1186/s12955-020-01584-w.
SpainValidity of the EQ-5D-5L and reference norms for the Spanish population .
Hernandez G, Garin O, Pardo Y, Vilagut G, Pont À, Suárez M, Neira M, Rajmil L, Gorostiza I, Ramallo-Fariña Y, Cabases J, Alonso J, Ferrer M.
Qual Life Res. 2018 Sep;27(9):2337-2348. doi: 10.1007/s11136-018-1877-5. Epub 2018 May 16.
SpainNormative values of EQ-5D-5L: in a Spanish representative population sample from Spanish Health Survey, 2011. 
Garcia-Gordillo MA, Adsuar JC, Olivares PR.
Qual Life Res. 2016 May;25(5):1313-21. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1164-7. Epub 2015 Oct 19.
Spain (diabetes patients)Normative Values of Eq-5d-5l for Diabetes Patients from Spain.  
Collado Mateo, D., Garcia Gordillo, M. A., Olivares, P. R., & Adsuar, J. C. (2015). Nutr Hosp, 32(4), 1595-1602.
SwedenInequality and heterogeneity in health-related quality of life: findings based on a large sample of cross-sectional EQ-5D-5L data from the Swedish general population .
Teni FS, Gerdtham UG, Leidl R, Henriksson M, Åström M, Sun S, Burström K.
Qual Life Res. 2021 Oct 10. doi: 10.1007/s11136-021-02982-3.
Trinidad & TobagoEQ-5D-5L population norms and health inequalities for Trinidad and Tobago .
Bailey H, Janssen MF, La Foucade A, Kind P.
PLoS One. 2019 Apr 29;14(4):e0214283. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214283. eCollection 2019.
United StatesUS population norms for the EQ-5D-5L and comparison of norms from face-to-face and online samples. 
Jiang R, Janssen MFB, Pickard AS.
Qual Life Res. 2021 Mar;30(3):803-816. doi: 10.1007/s11136-020-02650-y. Epub 2020 Oct 6.
Vietnam (hypertension patients)Reference data among general population and known-groups validity among hypertensive population of the EQ-5D-5L in Vietnam .
Mai VQ, Giang KB, Minh HV, Lindholm L, Sun S, Sahlen KG.
Qual Life Res. 2021 Aug 9. doi: 10.1007/s11136-021-02959-2. Online ahead of print.
VietnamQuality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L .
Nguyen LH, Tran BX, Hoang Le QN, Tran TT, Latkin CA.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 Oct 11;15(1):199. doi: 10.1186/s12955-017-0771-0.

(Version7FEB2022)

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